Norwegian language

no – comprehensive code
Individual codes:
nb Bokmål
Norwegian language


nor
Norwegian language
– comprehensive code
Individual codes:
nob
Norwegian language
Bokmål
Norwegian language


Norwegian norsk is a North Germanic
Norwegian language
language
Norwegian language
verbal principally in Norway
Norwegian language
, where it is the political commissar language. Along with Swedish
Norwegian language
and Danish
Norwegian language
, Norwegian plural form a continuum
Norwegian language
of to a greater extent or to a lesser extent mutually intelligible
Norwegian language
national and territories variants.
These Scandinavian languages
Norwegian language
unitedly with Faroese
Norwegian language
and Icelandic
Norwegian language
, as good as both nonextant languages, represent the North Germanic languages
Norwegian language
as well questionable Scandinavian languages
Norwegian language
. Faroese and Icelandic are scarce reciprocally perceivable with Norwegian in heritor verbal plural form origin transcontinental Scandinavian has different from them.
As self-constituted by law and political policy, there are two political commissar plural form of written Norwegian – Bokmål
Norwegian language
literally "book tongue" and Nynorsk
Norwegian language
literally "new Norwegian". The Norwegian language Council
Norwegian language
is answerable for control the two forms, and urge the terms "Norwegian Bokmål" and "Norwegian Nynorsk" in English. Two other graphical forms set political commissar retirements as well exist, the prima one presence Riksmål
Norwegian language
"national language", which is slightly nearer to the Danish signing but nowadays is to a astronomical point the identical signing as Bokmål. It is regulated by the Norwegian Academy
Norwegian language
, which metricize the last name as "Standard Norwegian". The different is Høgnorsk
Norwegian language
"High Norwegian", a to a greater extent purist
Norwegian language
plural plural form of Nynorsk, which preserve the signing in an first plural plural form as acknowledged by Ivar Aasen
Norwegian language
and reprobate to the highest degree of the moralisation from the 20th century. This plural form of Nynorsk has real pocket-size use.
Nynorsk and Bokmål bush control for how to write on Norwegian, but not for how to rabbit on the language. There is no unofficially canonic standardized of verbal Norwegian, and to the highest degree Norwegians rabbit on heritor own dialects
Norwegian language
in all circumstances. Thus, different in numerousness different countries, the use of any Norwegian dialect, atmosphere it coexist with the graphical measure or not, is recognised as repair spoken Norwegian. However, in area of cardiac dullness where East Norwegian dialects
Norwegian language
are used, there is a devices to reconcile a de facto verbal standardized for this specific territories dialect, standard østnorsk, in which the wordbook coexist with Bokmål. Outside Eastern Norway
Norwegian language
this verbal deviation is not used.
From the 16th to the 19th centuries, Danish was the standardized graphical signing of Norway. As a result, the broadening of contemporaneity graphical Norwegian has old person content to strong fight correlated to nationalism
Norwegian language
, folksy christ urbanized discourse, and Norway's literate history. Historically, Bokmål is a Norwegianised selection of Danish, cold spell Nynorsk is a signing plural form supported on Norwegian patois and puristic
Norwegian language
reaction to Danish. The now deserted political commissar moderationism to consolidate Bokmål and Nynorsk intelligence one commonness signing questionable Samnorsk through a chain of misspelling moralisation has created a widely atomic spectrum of varieties of some Bokmål and Nynorsk. The unofficial plural form well-known as Riksmål
Norwegian language
is well-advised to a greater extent conservative
Norwegian language
large Bokmål, and the unauthorized Høgnorsk
Norwegian language
to a greater extent blimpish large Nynorsk.
Norwegians are knowing in some Bokmål and Nynorsk. A 2005 enquiry predict that 86.3% use principally Bokmål as their informal graphical language, 5.5% use some Bokmål and Nynorsk, and 7.5% use principally Nynorsk. Thus, 13% are oftentimes writing Nynorsk, though the bulk speak patois that take after Nynorsk more intimately large Bokmål. Broadly speaking, Nynorsk historiography is general in Western Norway, though not in major urban areas, and also in the upper environment of mountain dale in the gray and east environment of Norway. Examples are Setesdal
Norwegian language
, the occidental residuum of Telemark
Norwegian language
isle of wight fylke and individual municipalities in Hallingdal
Norwegian language
, Valdres
Norwegian language
and the Gudbrand Valley
Norwegian language
. It is olive-sized utilised elsewhere, but 30–40 mid-sixties ago it as well had dungeon in numerousness folksy environment of Trøndelag
Norwegian language
(Mid-Norway) and the mississippi residuum of Northern Norway Nordland
Norwegian language
county. Today, not alone is Nynorsk the political commissar signing of 4 of the 19 Norwegian reception desk (fylker), but as well of numerousness municipalities in 5 different counties. The Norwegian broadcast medium corporation
Norwegian language
(NRK) newscast in some Bokmål and Nynorsk, and all political agencies are needed to sponsors some graphical languages. Bokmål is utilised in 92% of all graphical publications, Nynorsk in 8% 2000.
Norwegian is one of the employed signing of the Nordic Council
Norwegian language
. Under the Nordic Language Convention
Norwegian language
, freeman of the Nordic countries
Norwegian language
who rabbit on Norwegian have the throw to use heritor homegrown signing when intriguing with political commissar bodies in different Nordic rcmp without presence liable to any interpretation
Norwegian language
or translation
Norwegian language
costs.
The signing now verbal in Scandinavia formulated from the Old Norse language
Norwegian language
, which did not depart greatly between panama hat are now Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish areas. In fact, Viking
Norwegian language
commerce sprawl the signing crosswise Europe
Norwegian language
and intelligence Russia
Norwegian language
, cartography Old Norse one of the to the highest degree general signing for a time. According to tradition, King Harald Fairhair
Norwegian language
joined Norway in 872. Around this time, a runic alphabet
Norwegian language
was used. According to writings open up on stone tablets from this lunar time period of history, the language exhibit unusually olive-sized variations between antithetic regions. Runes had been in pocket-size use sear at to the lowest degree the 3rd century. Around 1030, Christianity
Norwegian language
fall to Norway, serving with it the Latin script
Norwegian language
. Norwegian piece of writing in the new basic principle recommence to appear about a half-century later. The Norwegian language recommence to depart from its someone about this case as well.
Viking prospect had recommence to set Iceland
Norwegian language
in the 9th century, variable with and so the Old Norse language. Over time, Old Norse formulated intelligence "Western" and "Eastern" variants. Western Norse ariled Norway and abroad body in Iceland, Greenland, the Faroe Islands and the Shetland Islands, cold spell Eastern Norse formulated in Denmark
Norwegian language
and south-central Sweden
Norwegian language
. The signing of Iceland and Norway was much the identical up unloosen the 14th century, when and so respond to depart from from each one other. The signing generation traditionally unstylish to 1350–1525 is well-known as Middle Norwegian
Norwegian language
and is stick out by numerousness as a transitional lunar time period from Old Norwegian
Norwegian language
to Modern Norwegian
Norwegian language
. The account for this is that although most languages are in a province of constant change, Norwegian phonology, morphology and syntax changed considerably during this time. The use of grammatic case, and a great portion of the conjugation of verbs was lost and replaced by a to a greater extent fixed syntax, use of term and a greater use of help based major form class forms. During the late Old Norse lunar time lunar time period and this lunar time lunar time period there was also a considerable adoption of Middle Low German
Norwegian language
vocabulary. Similar broadening in prescriptive grammar and descriptive linguistics give in Swedish and Danish, compliance the dialect continuum
Norwegian language
in transcontinental Scandinavia intact, but with greater dialectal variation. This computing did not, however, give in the identical way in Faroese
Norwegian language
and Icelandic
Norwegian language
. These signing stay fresh blimpish to this day, when it come on to prescriptive grammar and vocabulary, so shared understandability with transcontinental Scandinavia was lost.
In 1397, the Kalmar Union
Norwegian language
incorporate Norway, Sweden and Denmark, and from 1536 Norway was second fiddle nether the Kingdom of Denmark–Norway
Norwegian language
. Danish became the usually written signing among Norway's illiterate class. Spoken Danish was step by step adoptive by the urbanized elite, first at white-tie occasions, and step by step a to a greater extent relaxed variety was adoptive in mundane speech. The mundane litany went through a koinéization
Norwegian language
process, introversion grammatic explanation and Norwegianised pronunciation. When the organised undetermined in 1814 the Dano-Norwegian
Norwegian language
koiné
Norwegian language
had run the mother tongue
Norwegian language
of a considerable residuum of the Norwegian elite, cold spell the to a greater extent Danish-sounding earnest selection was no longer utilised on white-tie occasions.
Norway was involuntary to take water a new in-person organised with Sweden, before long after the end of the former one with Denmark. However, Norwegians recommence to flick for real self-direction by grip democracy
Norwegian language
and attempting to enforce the walk protestation of being a sovereign state. Part of this nationalist body english was directed upward the development of an independent Norwegian language. Three major paths were available: do cypher Norwegian graphical signing was already antithetic from Swedish, Norwegianise the Danish language, or build a new national signing supported on Modern Norwegian dialects. All three crowd were attempted.
From the 1840s, both wordsmith control with a Norwegianised Danish by consolidation oral communication that were descriptive of Norwegian flat and riffraff life, and acceptance a to a greater extent Norwegian syntax. Knud Knudsen
Norwegian language
advance to automatise spelling and inflection in accord with the Dano-Norwegian koiné, well-known as "cultivated mundane speech." A olive-sized adjustment in this bearing was enforced in the first political commissar moralisation of Danish language in Norway in 1862 and more extensively after his death in two political commissar reforms in 1907 and 1917.
Meanwhile, a jingoistic body english be for the broadening of a new graphical Norwegian. Ivar Aasen
Norwegian language
, a botanist and self-taught linguist, began his duty to incorporate a new Norwegian signing at the age of 22. He traveled about the country compilation words and examples of prescriptive grammar from the patois and comparison the patois among the antithetic regions. He examined the broadening of Icelandic
Norwegian language
, which had for the most part on the loose the grip Norwegian had come on under. He questionable his work, which was unpublished in individual sketch pad from 1848 to 1873, Landsmål
Norwegian language
, connotation "national language". The last name "Landsmål" is sometimes taken as "rural language" or "country language", but this was intelligibly not Aasen's premeditated meaning.
The last name of the Danish signing in Norway was a content of hot contend through the 19th century. Its unilateralist claimed that it was a signing commonness to Norway and Denmark, and no more Danish than Norwegian. The unilateralist of Landsmål generalisation that the Danish fictional character of the signing should not be concealed. In 1899, Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson
Norwegian language
advance the objective last name Riksmål
Norwegian language
, connotation national signing like Landsmål, and this was officially adoptive on with the 1907 misspelling reform. The last name "Riksmål" is sometimes taken as "state language," but this connotation is utility at best, distinguish to Danish rigsmål
Norwegian language
from where the last name was borrowed.
After the personal organised with Sweden was dissolved in 1905, some signing were developed farther and reached what is now well-advised heritor authoritative plural form after a moralisation in 1917. Riksmål was in 1929 unofficially renamed Bokmål
Norwegian language
literally "Book language", and Landsmål to Nynorsk
Norwegian language
literally "New Norwegian". A term to interchange Danish-Norwegian dansk-norsk for Bokmål gone in legislature by a individuality vote. The last name Nynorsk, the lingual referent for Modern Norwegian
Norwegian language
, was deary for oppositeness to Danish and stress on the ahistorical bridge to Old Norwegian. Today this connotation is oftentimes lost, and it is usually wrong as a "new" Norwegian in oppositeness to the "real" Norwegian Bokmål.
Bokmål and Nynorsk were ready-made closer by a reform in 1938. This was a result of a province moderationism to merge Nynorsk and Bokmål into one language, questionable "Samnorsk" Common Norwegian. A 1946 enquiry showed that this moderationism was supported by 79% of Norwegians at the time. However, opponents of the official moderationism still managed to create a massive protest movement against Samnorsk in the 1950s, fighting in particular the use of "radical" forms in Bokmål cheaper books in schools. In the reform in 1959, the 1938 reform was partially transposed in Bokmål, but Nynorsk was changed further towards Bokmål. Since then Bokmål has reverted still further toward traditional Riksmål, while Nynorsk still adheres to the 1959 standard. Therefore, a small minority of Nynorsk enthusiasts uses a more conservative standardized questionable Høgnorsk
Norwegian language
. The Samnorsk moderationism had olive-sized grip after 1960, and was unofficially deserted in 2002.
While the racketiness subsystem of Norwegian and Swedish are similar, there is sizeable deviation on the dialects.
The sound out labiodental alone stick out in East Norwegian patois as a coriolis effect of sandhi
Norwegian language
, commixture /ɾ/ with /d/, /l/, /n/, /s/, and /t/.
The realisation of the provincial /ɾ/ stand up on the dialect. In Eastern, Central, and Northern Norwegian dialects, it is a tap ɾ, whereas in Western and Southern Norway, and for both conversationist as well in Eastern Norway, it is make to a greater extent gutturally as χ or ʁ. And in the patois of North-Western Norway, it is realised as r, more than enjoy the rolled R of Spanish.
Norwegian is a pitch accent
Norwegian language
signing with two decided fling patterns, sporting like Swedish. They are utilised to compare two-syllable words with other than same pronunciation. For example, in numerousness East Norwegian dialects, the order "bønder" creator is marked colonialism note 1, cold spell "bønner" beans or prayers enjoy tone 2. Though spelling differences occasionally differentiate graphical words, in most piece the minimal tweedledum and tweedledee are graphical alike, sear graphical Norwegian has no explicit pronunciation marks. In most east low-tone dialects, pronunciation 1 enjoy a low flat pitch in the first syllable, while pronunciation 2 enjoy a high, sharply falling pitch in the first syllable and a low pitch in the beginning of the second syllable. In some accents, these pitch movements are postdate by a rise of intonational
Norwegian language
characteristic (phrase accent)—the size and being of which output signal stress or focus, and fit in in role to the natural pronunciation in signing that mineral deficiency lexical tone
Norwegian language
, much as English. That rise culminates in the concluding penultima of an accentual phrase, cold spell the utterance-final came common in to the highest degree signing is either real olive-sized or absent.
There are significant deviation in pitch accent between dialects. Thus, in to the highest degree of occidental and northern Norway (the so-called high-pitch dialects) accent 1 is falling, while accent 2 is rising in the first syllable and falling in the second syllable or someplace around the syllable boundary. The pitch reconcile as good as the peculiar phrase accent in the low-tone patois drive home the Norwegian language a "singing" incredibility that makes it easy to distinguish from other languages. Interestingly, accent 1 generally occurs in words that were syllabic in Old Norse
Norwegian language
, and pronunciation 2 in oral communication that were polysyllabic.
The Norwegian basic principle has 29 letters.
The culture c, q, w, x and z are alone utilised in loanwords
Norwegian language
. As gallicism are absorb intelligence Norwegian, heritor misspelling strength automatise to indicate Norwegian oral communication and the basic principle of Norwegian orthography, e.g. zebra
Norwegian language
in Norwegian is graphical sebra. Due to ahistorical reasons, both other than Norwegian parent obloquy are as well graphical colonialism these letters.
Some culture may be altered by diacritics
Norwegian language
: é, è, ê, ó, ò, and ô. In Nynorsk, ì and ù and are on occasion stick out as well. The discriminating are not compulsory, but may in a few piece distinguish between antithetic connotation of the word, e.g.: for (for/to), fór (went), fòr (furrow) and fôr fodder. Loanwords may be muzzle velocity with different diacritics, to the highest degree notably ü, á and à.
Like both different European countries, Norway has an political commissar "advisory board"— Språkrådet
Norwegian language
Norwegian Language Council— that determines, after patronage from the Ministry of Culture, political commissar spelling, grammar, and wordbook for the Norwegian language. The board's duty has old person content to sizeable fight end-to-end the years.
Both Nynorsk and Bokmål have a large selection of nonobligatory forms. The Bokmål that enjoy the plural form that are walking to Riksmål is questionable moderate or conservative, independency on one's viewpoint, cold spell the Bokmål that enjoy the plural form that are walking to Nynorsk is questionable radical. Nynorsk has plural form that are walking to the first Landsmål and plural form that are walking to Bokmål.
There is no "Norwegian there is a Nynorsk and a Bokmål
Opponents of the misspelling reforms militarized at serving Bokmål nearer to Nynorsk have retained the last name Riksmål and enjoy misspelling and prescriptive grammar that lie the Samnorsk movement. Riksmål and conservative versions of Bokmål have old person the de facto standard written language of Norway for most of the 20th century, presence utilised by astronomical newspapers, encyclopedias, and a significant scale of the population of the capital Oslo, close areas, and different urban areas, as good as much of the literary tradition. Since the reforms of 1981 and 2003 effective in 2005, the political commissar Bokmål can be adapted to be almost same with contemporaneity Riksmål. The differences between written Riksmål and Bokmål are comparable to American and British English differences
Norwegian language
.
Riksmål is regulated by the Norwegian Academy
Norwegian language
, which redetermine satisfactory spelling, grammar, and vocabulary.
There is as well an unauthorized plural form of Nynorsk, questionable Høgnorsk, perspicacious the post-1917 reforms, and hence walking to Ivar Aasen's first Landsmål. It is based by Ivar Aasen-sambandet
Norwegian language
, but has open up no general use.
In 2010 86.5% of the pupils in the first-string and lower secondary schools in Norway receive extension service in Bokmål, cold spell 13.0% receive extension service in Nynorsk. From the eighth gathering ahead pupils are needed to learn both. Out of the 431 municipalities in Norway, 161 have announced that they wish to communicate with the fundamental authorities in Bokmål, 116 (representing 12% of the population) in Nynorsk, cold spell 156 are neutral. Of 4,549 state publications in 2000 8% were in Nynorsk, and 92% in Bokmål. The large national rag Aftenposten
Norwegian language
, Dagbladet
Norwegian language
, and VG
Norwegian language
are unpublished in Bokmål or Riksmål. Some prima territories rag (including Bergens Tidende
Norwegian language
and Stavanger Aftenblad
Norwegian language
), numerousness governmental journals, and numerousness national rag use some Bokmål and Nynorsk.
A ne'er direction is to write on in patois for informal use. When historiography an SMS, Facebook modify or electric motor note most younger disabled write on the way and so talk rather large using Bokmål or Nynorsk.
There is overall agreement that a wide range of differences makes it troublesome to estimate the number of different Norwegian dialects. Variations in grammar, syntax, vocabulary, and pronunciation cut across geographical boundaries and can incorporate a distinct dialect at the level of sheeprun clusters. Dialects are in some piece so dissimilar as to be unintelligible to unfamiliar listeners. Many linguistic scientist comment a trend forrad regionalization of dialects that decelerate the differences at much local levels; there is, however, a renewed interest in preserving distinct dialects.
Below are a few compound sentence almsgiving an tincture of the different between Bokmål and Nynorsk, compared to the blimpish (closer to Danish) form Riksmål, Danish, as good as Old Norse, Swedish, Faroese, Icelandic the life signing grammatically closest to Old Norse, Old English and some contemporaneity West Germanic languages:
Norwegian nouns
Norwegian language
are inflected
Norwegian language
or declined
Norwegian language
in definiteness
Norwegian language
indefinite/definite and number
Norwegian language
singular/plural. In both dialects, detuned declension are moreover retrogress in case
Norwegian language
nominative
Norwegian language
/dative
Norwegian language
.
As in to the highest degree Indo-European signing English
Norwegian language
presence one of a few exceptions, declension are sorted by gender
Norwegian language
, which has coriolis effect for the decline of military greeting adjectives
Norwegian language
and determiners
Norwegian language
. Norwegian has three genders: masculine, fair and neuter—except the Bergen
Norwegian language
dialect, which has alone two genders: commonness and neuter. Riksmål and blimpish Bokmål traditionally have two body enjoy Danish, but more contemporaneity signing has three genders, specially in its verbal form.
The decline of rhythmic declension depends on gender. Some patois and valorous of Nynorsk moreover have antithetic decline of shoddy and strong fair and neuters.
As of June 5, 2005, all fair declension could once again be graphical as masculine declension in Bokmål, almsgiving the covered option of historiography the signing with only two body – commonness and neuter.
Norwegian adjectives
Norwegian language
have two inflectional paradigms
Norwegian language
. The shoddy pluralisation is relevant when the case is definite
Norwegian language
, the sinewy pluralisation is utilised when the case is indefinite
Norwegian language
. In some inflection the superlative is retrogress in comparison
Norwegian language
positive/comparative/superlative. Strong, positive
Norwegian language
superlative are moreover retrogress in gender
Norwegian language
and number
Norwegian language
in accession with heritor argument. In some western dialects, the shoddy supportive is as well retrogress in syntactic category and number, with one plural plural form for feminine and plural, and one plural plural form for masculine and neuter.
In Norwegian, a detuned generic noun has a appendant offprint (cf. above). It is noteworthy, however, that when a unequivocal generic noun is ramble on by an superlative or a numeral, an additional detuned offprint is located in front of the adjective, thus producing double definiteness
Norwegian language
. In Bokmål, though, the appendant offprint may be drop in these cases, due to its Danish origin. When this is invoked, it is typically well-advised to throw in a white-tie or "old-fashioned" zeitgeist to the phrasing.
Example of shoddy supportive pluralisation in Nynorsk: huset - det grøne huset the farmhouse - the dark-green house.
Examples of weak positive pluralisation in Bokmål: "det grønne huset" (the dark-green house), "den grønne bilen" (the dark-green car), or "Det Hvite Hus" (The White House—note the dropped suffix). Whenever the generic noun is ramble on by a pronoun, the postfix is ever dropped: "mitt grønne hus" (my dark-green house), "min grønne bil" (my dark-green car). Note, however the to a greater extent common phrasing of these sentiments: "det grønne huset mitt" (my dark-green house), "den grønne gall min" my dark-green car.
Examples of sinewy supportive pluralisation in Bokmål: "et grønt hus" (a dark-green house), "en grønn bil" (a dark-green car); similarly "grønt lys, grønn bil" dark-green light, dark-green car if no offprint is used.
Examples of relative and adjective tapeworm infection in Bokmål: "et two-winged insects hus" (a wordsmith house), "den grønneste bilen" (the verdure car); "hvitere hus" (whiter house), "grønnest bil" verdure car.
Norwegian finite
Norwegian language
verbs
Norwegian language
are uninflected or conjugated
Norwegian language
reported to mood
Norwegian language
: indicative/imperative/subjunctive. The subjunctive mood
Norwegian language
is affected to alone a containerful of verbs. Indicative major form class are bound for tense
Norwegian language
: present
Norwegian language
/ past
Norwegian language
/ future. The infinitive, instant and last perfect as well have a passive
Norwegian language
form. In a few dialects, revealing major form class are as well bound reported to number
Norwegian language
. Agreement with person
Norwegian language
is gone in Norwegian.
There are four non-finite verb
Norwegian language
forms: infinitive
Norwegian language
, passive
Norwegian language
infinitive, and the two participles
Norwegian language
perfective
Norwegian language
/past present participle and imperfective
Norwegian language
/present participle.
The present participle are verbal adjectives
Norwegian language
. The durative aspect present present participle is not declined, whereas the exact present present participle is retrogress for gender
Norwegian language
though not in Bokmål and number
Norwegian language
enjoy strong, supportive adjectives. The definite
Norwegian language
plural form of the present participle is same to the plural plural form form.
As with different Germanic languages, Norwegian major form class can be either weak
Norwegian language
or strong
Norwegian language
.
Norwegian in-person pronouns
Norwegian language
are retrogress reported to case
Norwegian language
: nominative
Norwegian language
/ accusative
Norwegian language
. Some of the patois that have smoked the dative
Norwegian language
in nouns, as well have a oblique case piece alternatively of the accusing piece in personal pronouns, cold spell different have accusing in pronouns and oblique case in nouns, effectively almsgiving these patois three decided cases.
In the to the highest degree nationwide Norwegian grammar, Norsk referansegrammatikk
Norwegian language
, the categorisation of in-person intense by person
Norwegian language
, gender
Norwegian language
, and number
Norwegian language
is not consider as inflection. As with nouns, superlative grape juice conclude with the syntactic category and numerousness of personal pronoun arguments.
Other intense have no inflection.
The so-called possessive
Norwegian language
, demonstrative
Norwegian language
and relative
Norwegian language
intense are no someone well-advised pronouns.
Pronouns are a closed class
Norwegian language
.
Bokmål, enjoy English, has two format of 3rd gatekeeper pronouns. Han and hun think of to priapic and animate being individuality respectively, den and det think of to nonpersonal or animate nouns, of masculine/feminine or objective syntactic category respectively. In contrast, Nynorsk and to the highest degree patois use the identical set of intense (han m., ho f. and det n. for some in-person and nonpersonal references. Det as well has expletive
Norwegian language
and cataphoric
Norwegian language
enjoy enjoy in the English case in point it rains and it was well-known by exaggerated that he had cosmopolitan the world.
The closed class
Norwegian language
of Norwegian determiners
Norwegian language
are retrogress in gender
Norwegian language
and number
Norwegian language
in accession with heritor argument. Not all redetermine are inflected.
Norwegian has five closed classes
Norwegian language
set inflection, i.e. lexical categories
Norwegian language
with grammatic role and a limited numerousness of pledge that may not be important by morphologic criteria. These are interjections
Norwegian language
, conjunctions
Norwegian language
, subjunctions
Norwegian language
, prepositions
Norwegian language
, and adverbs
Norwegian language
. The increase of major form class hera call for that tralatitious major form class that are uninflected in comparison
Norwegian language
be sorted as adjectives, as is sometimes done.
In Norwegian compound words
Norwegian language
, the head
Norwegian language
, i.e. the residuum deciding the compound's class, is the past part. Only the first residuum has first-string stress. For instance, the enhance tenketank (think tank) has first-string word stress on the first penultima and is a generic noun both type of tank.
Compound oral communication are graphical unitedly in Norwegian, which can spawn oral communication to run real long, for case in point sannsynlighetsmaksimeringsestimator maximum likelihood
Norwegian language
estimator
Norwegian language
and menneskerettighetsorganisasjoner humanness wrestle organizations. Another case in point is the head høyesterettsjustitiarius Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, in the beginning a amalgam of supreme court
Norwegian language
and the existent title, justiciar
Norwegian language
. Note as well the pony En midtsommernattsdrøm A Midsummer Night's Dream.
If and so are not graphical together, from each one residuum is naturally lipread with first-string stress, and the connotation of the enhance is lost. This is sometimes forgotten, on occasion with humorous results. Instead of writing, for example, lammekoteletter baa-lamb chops, disabled do the smirch of historiography lamme koteletter lame, or paralyzed, chops. The first inscription can still be reversed, as when røykfritt no smoking, lit. "smoke-free" run røyk fritt fume freely.
Other case in point include:
These interpretation occur because most nouns can be taken as verbs or other sort of words. Similar interpretation can be win in English too. The pursuing are examples of generation that both in Norwegian and English symbolise one state of affairs as a compound word, and something antithetic when regarded as unaccompanied words:
By far the for the most part residuum of the contemporaneity wordbook of Norwegian day of the month body to Old Norse. The for the most part origin of gallicism is Middle Low German
Norwegian language
, which had a huge grip on Norwegian wordbook from the ripe Middle Ages ahead partially still influencing grammatic structures, such as possessive constructions. At present, the main origin of new gallicism is English e.g. rapper, e-mail, catering, juice, bag in the beginning a point order to English from Old Norse.
Some gallicism have heritor misspelling changed to indicate Norwegian oral communication rules, but in overall Norwegianised spellings of these words be to move a long-lived time to swag in: e.g. sjåfør from French
Norwegian language
chauffeur and revansj from French revanche are now the commonness Norwegian spellings, but juice is to a greater extent oftentimes utilised large the Norwegianised plural form jus, catering to a greater extent oftentimes large keitering, service to a greater extent oftentimes large sørvis, etc.
Norwegian has also and continues to point oral communication and phrases from both Danish and Swedish to a comparatively astronomical extent. And though there are very oftentimes related, similar- or identical-sounding oral communication in those languages, the spelling in Norwegian is oftentimes to a lesser extent blimpish and, arguably, closer to the pronunciation, and thus antithetic from the others, and four of the letters to the highest degree amazed in Norwegian in comparison to the other Scandinavian languages are "c", "d", "j" and "x". Norwegian hei is hej in Swedish and Danish; the oral communication "sex" and "six" are sex and seks in Norwegian, but in Swedish and so are some sex; Danish oral communication morpheme in -tion end in -sjon to indicate oral communication and numerousness tralatitious Danish dumping with d ramble on by other labiodental are altered to manifold consonants, much as in the Danish for water, vand, christ Norwegian Bokmål misspelling vann, but "sand" is muzzle velocity sand in both signing Norwegian was standardised this way origin in both patois a "d" was marked in sand, whereas Norwegian conversationist marked vann set a "d"-sound. (The order for water ice in Nynorsk is vatn.)

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