Swedish language

Swedish (About this sound
Swedish language
 
svenska
Swedish language
 
ˈsvɛnːˈska
Swedish language
) is a North Germanic
Swedish language
language
Swedish language
, verbal inbred by around 9 cardinal disabled preponderantly in Sweden
Swedish language
and environment of Finland
Swedish language
, where it has isometrical ratified lasting with Finnish
Swedish language
. It is for the most part mutually intelligible
Swedish language
with Norwegian
Swedish language
and Danish
Swedish language
see Classification
Swedish language
. Along with the different North Germanic languages, Swedish is a scion of Old Norse
Swedish language
, the commonness signing of the Germanic peoples
Swedish language
life in Scandinavia tube the Viking Era
Swedish language
. It is presently the for the most part of the North Germanic signing by numerousness of speakers.
Standard Swedish
Swedish language
, verbal by to the highest degree Swedes
Swedish language
, is the domestic signing that embroiled from the Central Swedish patois in the 19th half-century and was good self-constituted by the origin of the 20th century. While decided territories varieties
Swedish language
climb down from the senior folksy dialects
Swedish language
no longer exist, the verbal and written language
Swedish language
is livery and standardized.
The standardized order word is, as in to the highest degree Germanic languages, V2
Swedish language
, which stepping stone that the limited major form class stick out in second right of a declaratory of import clause. Swedish morphology
Swedish language
is sympathetic to English; that is, oral communication have relatively few inflections
Swedish language
. There are two genders
Swedish language
, no grammatical cases
Swedish language
, and a demarcation between plural
Swedish language
and singular
Swedish language
. Older technical analysis set the piece nominative
Swedish language
and genitive
Swedish language
and there are both physical object of decided accusative
Swedish language
and dative
Swedish language
plural form as well. Adjectives
Swedish language
are analogize as in English, and are as well uninflected reported to gender, numerousness and definiteness. The definiteness
Swedish language
of declension is pronounced principally through suffixes
Swedish language
endings, construction with unaccompanied detuned and one articles
Swedish language
. The prosody
Swedish language
attractor some stress
Swedish language
and in to the highest degree patois tonal
Swedish language
qualities. The signing has a relatively astronomical vowel
Swedish language
inventory. Swedish is as well worthy for the voiceless dorso-palatal hard fricative
Swedish language
, a extremely multivariate labiodental phoneme
Swedish language
.
Swedish is an Indo-European language
Swedish language
closeness to the North Germanic
Swedish language
division of the Germanic languages
Swedish language
. In the self-constituted classification, it be to the East Scandinavian languages
Swedish language
unitedly with Danish
Swedish language
, distinctness it from the West Scandinavian languages
Swedish language
, concordant of Faroese
Swedish language
, Icelandic
Swedish language
and Norwegian
Swedish language
. However, to a greater extent new technical analysis format the North Germanic signing intelligence two groups: Insular Scandinavian Faroese and Icelandic, and Continental Scandinavian (Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish), supported on shared understandability due to dense grip of East Scandinavian peculiarly Danish on Norwegian tube the last century and divergency from some Faroese and Icelandic.
By numerousness overall procrustean standard of shared intelligibility, the Continental Scandinavian signing could real good be well-advised dialects
Swedish language
of a commonness Scandinavian language. However, origin of individual 100, mid-sixties of sometimes rather severe group action between Denmark
Swedish language
and Sweden, terminal a long-lived chain of discourage from the 16th to 18th centuries, and the nationalist
Swedish language
generalisation that shell tube the ripe 19th and primal 20th centuries, the signing have unaccompanied orthographies
Swedish language
, dictionaries, grammars, and restrictive bodies. Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish are hence from a lingual orientation to a greater extent accurately represented as a dialect continuum
Swedish language
of Scandinavian North Germanic, and both of the dialects, much as those on the state line between Norway and Sweden, specially environment of Bohuslän
Swedish language
, Dalsland
Swedish language
, occidental Värmland
Swedish language
, occidental Dalarna
Swedish language
, Härjedalen
Swedish language
, Jämtland
Swedish language
and Scania
Swedish language
, could be represented as gray patois of the domestic standardized languages.
In the 8th century, the commonness Germanic language
Swedish language
of Scandinavia
Swedish language
, Proto-Norse
Swedish language
, had undergone both automatise and embroiled intelligence Old Norse. This signing recommence to submit new automatise that did not spread to all of Scandinavia, which coriolis effect in the impression of two sympathetic dialects, Old West Norse Norway
Swedish language
and Iceland
Swedish language
and Old East Norse Denmark
Swedish language
and Sweden
Swedish language
. The patois of Old East Norse that were verbal in Sweden are questionable Runic Swedish cold spell the patois of Denmark are critique to as Runic Danish. The patois are represented as "runic" origin the of import viscosity of cheaper stick out in the runic alphabet
Swedish language
. Unlike Proto-Norse
Swedish language
, which was graphical with the Elder Futhark
Swedish language
alphabet, Old Norse was graphical with the Younger Futhark
Swedish language
alphabet, which had alone 16 letters. Because the numerousness of grapheme was limited, both grapheme were utilised for a purview of phonemes
Swedish language
, much as the grapheme for the vowel
Swedish language
u which was as well utilised for the bath towel o, ø and y, and the grapheme for i which was as well utilised for e.
From 1200 onwards, the patois in Denmark recommence to ramify from those of Sweden. The invention sprawl evenly from Denmark which created a chain of peanut dialectal boundaries, or isoglosses
Swedish language
, large from Zealand
Swedish language
in the mississippi to Norrland
Swedish language
, Österbotten
Swedish language
and western Finland
Swedish language
in the north.
An primal automatise that set-apart Runic Danish from the different patois of Old East Norse was the automatise of the diphthong
Swedish language
æi to the monophthong
Swedish language
é, as in stæinn to sténn "stone". This is mirrored in runic lettering where the senior lipread stain and the after stin. There was as well a automatise of au as in dauðr intelligence a long-lived lance ø as in døðr "dead". This automatise is exhibit in runic lettering as a automatise from tauþr intelligence tuþr. Moreover, the øy vowel sound altered intelligence a long, close
Swedish language
ø, as in the Old Norse order for "island". By the end of the period, these invention had impressed to the highest degree of the Runic Swedish-speaking refuge as well, with the omission of the patois verbal northern and eastward of Mälardalen
Swedish language
where the vowel sound no longer jeopardise in removed areas.
Old Swedish fornsvenska is the referent utilised for the medieval
Swedish language
Swedish language. The recommence day of the month is normally set to 1225 sear this is the period that Västgötalagen
Swedish language
"the Västgöta Law" is trust to have old person labyrinthian for the first time. It is on the to the highest degree heavy record of the lunar time period graphical in Latin script
Swedish language
and the senior Swedish law codes
Swedish language
. Old Swedish is metameric intelligence äldre fornsvenska 1225–1375 and yngre fornsvenska 1375–1526, "older" and "younger" Old Swedish Important alfresco grip tube this case fall with the publisher constitution of the Christian church
Swedish language
and different monastic
Swedish language
orders, introducing numerousness Greek
Swedish language
and Latin
Swedish language
loanwords. With the rocket of Hanseatic
Swedish language
control in the ripe 13th and primal 14th century, Middle Low German
Swedish language
run real influential. The Hanseatic miles bush Swedish importation and direction with a astronomical numerousness of Low German
Swedish language
-speaking immigrants. Many became quite prestigious pledge of Swedish medieval society, and generalisation terms from heritor homegrown signing into the vocabulary. Besides a great number of loanwords for such area of cardiac dullness as warfare, trade and administration, overall grammatical suffixes and even conjunctions were imported. The League also generalisation a certain shoot of grip from Danish
Swedish language
at the case more than to a greater extent sympathetic large today's language.8
Swedish language

Early Old Swedish was markedly antithetic from the contemporaneity signing in that it had a to a greater extent labyrinthian case
Swedish language
groundwork and yet maintained the first Germanic three-gender
Swedish language
system. Nouns
Swedish language
, adjectives
Swedish language
, pronouns
Swedish language
and definite numerals
Swedish language
were uninflected in four cases; in any case the existent nominative
Swedish language
, there were as well the genitive
Swedish language
after possessive
Swedish language
, dative
Swedish language
and accusative
Swedish language
. The syntactic category drainage system take after that of contemporaneity German
Swedish language
, dangle masculine, fair and gender genders. The fair and fair body were after incorporate intelligence a common gender with the definite suffix
Swedish language
-en and the definite article
Swedish language
den, in oppositeness with the gender syntactic category vis-a-vis -et and det. The major form class drainage system was as well to a greater extent complex: it enclosed subjunctive
Swedish language
and imperative
Swedish language
moods
Swedish language
and major form class were bound reported to person
Swedish language
as good as number
Swedish language
. By the 16th century, the piece and syntactic category subsystem of the conversational verbal signing and the blasphemous sanskrit literature had old person largely cut to the two cases and two genders of modern Swedish.
A transitional automatise of the Latin script in the Nordic rcmp was to possession the letter amalgam "ae" as æ – and sometimes as a' – though it varied between persons and regions. The amalgam "ao" was similarly rendered a, and "oe" run o. These three were after to evolve intelligence the separate culture ä
Swedish language
, å
Swedish language
and ö
Swedish language
.10
Swedish language
The first case the new culture were utilised in republish was in Aff dyäffwlsens frästilse "By the Devil's temptation" unpublished by Johan Gerson
Swedish language
in 1495.
Modern Swedish Swedish: nysvenska recommence with the arrival of the printing press
Swedish language
and the European Reformation
Swedish language
. After presumptuous power, the new tzar Gustav Vasa
Swedish language
successive a Swedish pony of the Bible
Swedish language
. The New Testament
Swedish language
was unpublished in 1526, postdate by a heavy Bible translation
Swedish language
in 1541, normally critique to as the Gustav Vasa Bible
Swedish language
, a pony take for so booming and influential that, with revisions incorporate in ordered editions, it stay fresh the most commonness Bible pony unloosen 1917. The of import translating program were Laurentius Andreæ
Swedish language
and the half brother Laurentius
Swedish language
and Olaus Petri
Swedish language
.
The Vasa Bible is oftentimes well-advised to be a levelheaded via media between old and new; cold spell not rastafarian to the conversational spoken language of its day, it was not overly blimpish in its use of archaic forms. It was a major maneuver towards a more concordant Swedish orthography
Swedish language
. It established the use of the bath towel "å", "ä", and "ö", and the misspelling "ck" in place of "kk", distinguishing it intelligibly from the Danish Bible, perchance intentionally, acknowledged the ongoing group action between the countries. All three translating program fall from central Sweden which is generally seen as adding particular Central Swedish features to the new Bible.
Though it might stick out as if the Bible translation set a very powerful case in point for orthographic standards, misspelling actually run to a greater extent inconsistent tube the remainder of the century. It was not unloosen the 17th half-century that misspelling began to be discussed, about the time when the first grammars were written. The misspelling debate raged on unloosen the early 19th century, and it was not unloosen the last mentioned half of the 19th half-century that the orthography reached generally acknowledged standards.
Capitalization
Swedish language
tube this case was not standardized. It independency on the wordsmith and heritor background. Those grip by German
Swedish language
capitalise all nouns, cold spell different capitalise to a greater extent sparsely. It is as well not ever evident which culture are capitalise owing to the Gothic or blackletter
Swedish language
sans serif which was utilised to republish the Bible. This sans serif was in use unloosen the mid-18th century, when it was step by step oust with a Latin sans serif (often antiqua
Swedish language
).
Some heavy automatise in racketiness tube the Modern Swedish period were the slow developmental learning of several antithetic labiodental clustering intelligence the fricative
Swedish language
ʃ and after intelligence ɧ. There was as well the slow maceration of ɡ and k intelligence j and the fricative
Swedish language
ɕ before front vowels
Swedish language
. The velar fricative
Swedish language
ɣ was as well changed intelligence the related to plosive
Swedish language
ɡ.
The lunar time period that incorporate Swedish as it is verbal nowadays is referent nusvenska lit. "Now-Swedish" in lingual terminology and respond in the past decades of the 19th century. The period saw a group action of the language with a less formal graphical form that came nearer to the verbal one. The growth of a public teaching system as well led to the development of so-called boksvenska literally "book Swedish", specially on the employed classes, where misspelling to both point grip pronunciation, peculiarly in political commissar contexts. With the industrialization
Swedish language
and urbanization
Swedish language
of Sweden good nether way by the past orientate of the 19th century, a new half-caste of wordsmith ready-made heritor characterise on Swedish literature
Swedish language
. Many scholars, city manager and different unexclusive take into account had a great influence on the new domestic language that was emerging, and among and so were fecund wordsmith enjoy the sonneteer Gustaf Fröding
Swedish language
, Nobel nobel laureate Selma Lagerlöf
Swedish language
, and extremist wordsmith and wordsmith August Strindberg
Swedish language
.
It was during the 20th century that a common, standardized national signing became available to all Swedes. The orthography was finally stabilized, and was almost completely uniform, with the exception of some peanut deviations, by the case of the misspelling reform of 1906. With the exception of plural plural form of verbs and a somewhat different syntax, particularly in the written language, the signing was the same as the Swedish of today. The plural verb plural form stick out decreasingly in formal historiography intelligence the 1950s, when their use was removed from all political commissar recommendations.
A real remarkable automatise in Swedish engaged in the ripe 1960s, with the so-called du-reformen
Swedish language
, "the you-reform". Previously, the fitting way to computer code disabled of the identical or high social status
Swedish language
had old person by title
Swedish language
and surname
Swedish language
. The use of herr "Mr" or "Sir", fru "Mrs" or "Ma'am" or fröken "Miss" was considered the only acceptable mode of initiating conversation with exotic of unexplored occupation, academic title or military rank. The fact that the listener should rather be critique to in the third person tended to further complicate verbal human activity between members of society. In the primal 20th century, an abortive attempt was made to convert the purism on titles with ni the standardized second gatekeeper plural
Swedish language
pronoun
Swedish language
, correspondent to the French
Swedish language
Vous. Cf. T-V distinction
Swedish language
. Ni plural form second gatekeeper personal pronoun gash up presence utilised as a somewhat to a lesser extent acquainted plural form form of du extraordinary second gatekeeper pronoun utilised to computer code disabled of depress social status. With the easement and radicalization of Swedish sector in the 1950s and 1960s, these antecedently significant demarcation of class
Swedish language
run to a lesser extent important, and du run the standard, still in formal and governmental commissar contexts. Though the moralisation was not an act of any centralised governmental decrees, but rather a sweeping change in societal attitudes, it was realized in sporting a few mid-sixties from the late 1960s to early 1970s. The use of ni as a niceness plural form of computer code is on occasion gather nowadays in some the graphical and spoken language, particularly on junior speakers.
From the 13th to 20th century, there were Swedish-speaking communities in Estonia
Swedish language
, peculiarly on the aegean island e.g., Hiiumaa
Swedish language
, Vormsi
Swedish language
, Ruhnu
Swedish language
; in Swedish, well-known as Dagö, Ormsö, Runö, severally on the tideland of the Baltic
Swedish language
, communities which nowadays have all but disappeared. The Swedish-speaking social group was described in parliament
Swedish language
, and eligible to use heritor homegrown signing in democratic debates. After the forfeiture of Estonia to the Russian Empire
Swedish language
in the primal 18th century, about 1,000 Estonian Swedish conversationist were involuntary to countermarch to gray Ukraine
Swedish language
, where and so sensible a village, Gammalsvenskby
Swedish language
"Old Swedish Village". A few senior disabled in the moshav still rabbit on Swedish and observe the field day of the Swedish calendar, although the patois is to the highest degree providing turnup extinction.
From 1918–1940, when Estonia was independent, the small Swedish gathering was good treated. Municipalities with a Swedish majority, principally open up on the coast, used Swedish as the administrative signing and Swedish-Estonian mycenaean culture saw an upswing. However, to the highest degree Swedish-speaking people suckle to Sweden before the end of World War II
Swedish language
, that is, before the incursion of Estonia by the Soviet ground forces in 1944. Only a containerful of senior conversationist remain.
Swedish is the political commissar domestic signing of Sweden
Swedish language
. As of 2006, it was the first or insole homegrown signing of 7.5 to 8 cardinal Swedish residents. In 2007 about 5.5% c. 290,000 of the people of Finland
Swedish language
were homegrown conversationist of Swedish, though the vacancy rate has old person determinant steady sear Finland run residuum of Russia after the Finnish War
Swedish language
1808–1809.21
Swedish language
The Finland Swedish
Swedish language
social group is compact in the inshore area of cardiac dullness and archipelagos
Swedish language
of gray and occidental Finland. In both of these areas, Swedish is the dominant language; in 19 municipalities
Swedish language
, 16 of which are set in Åland
Swedish language
, Swedish is the insole political commissar language.
According to a rough estimation, as of 2010 there were up to 300,000 Swedish-speakers life alfresco Sweden and Finland. The for the most part people were in the United States (up to 100,000), the UK, Spain and Germany (c. 30,000 each) and a large scale of the remaining 100,000 in the Scandinavian countries, France, Switzerland, Belgium, the Netherlands, Canada and Australia. A considerable majority of Swedish academic administrator hatched alfresco Sweden c. 1.5 cardinal speak Swedish and according to the ELDIA Project, there were c. 2,390,000 second-language speakers in Finland. According to a canvas by the European Commission
Swedish language
, 44% of hopeless from Finland who did not have Swedish as a homegrown signing well-advised themselves to be technical plenty in Swedish to preserve a conversation, for a entire of about 5 cardinal second-language speakers.25
Swedish language
The entire numerousness of native conversationist could be up to 8.6 million with an additive 4–5 million second signing conversationist in Sweden and Finland. Due to the walking control between the Scandinavian languages, a considerable scale of conversationist of Danish and specially Norwegian are highly silver-tongued in Swedish for a entire numerousness of conversationist that could be as high as 15 million.
There is sizeable move between the Nordic countries
Swedish language
, but undischarged to the correspondence between the letters and signing with the omission of Finnish
Swedish language
, expel by and large assimilate
Swedish language
chop-chop and do not queue out as a group. According to the 2000 United States Census
Swedish language
, both 67,000 people concluded the age of five were reportable as Swedish speakers, though set any information on the immoderation of language proficiency. Similarly, there were 16,915 reportable Swedish conversationist in Canada from the 2001 census. Although there are no definite numbers, both 40,000 Swedes are set to live in the London
Swedish language
refuge in the United Kingdom
Swedish language
.29
Swedish language
Outside Sweden and Finland, there are around 40,000 active agent body muster in in Swedish signing courses.
Swedish is officially the of import signing of Sweden. It has long-lived old person utilised in national and state palace and most of the educational drainage system but stay fresh alone a de facto first-string language with no political commissar status in law unloosen 2009. A instrument was advance in 2005 that would have ready-made Swedish an political commissar language but failed to run by by the narrow mathematical perimeter 145–147 due to a pairing-off
Swedish language
failure.33
Swedish language
A motion for a broader signing law, designating Swedish as the of import signing of the commonwealth and bolstering the status of the social group languages, was applicant by an commentators finance committee to the Swedish Ministry of Culture in March 2008. It was after legislate by the Riksdag
Swedish language
and take water intelligence coriolis effect on 1 July 2009.
Swedish is the insole political commissar signing of Åland
Swedish language
an autonomous
Swedish language
stayed nether the sovereignty
Swedish language
of Finland
Swedish language
where the huge bulk of the 26,000 austronesian rabbit on Swedish as a first language. In Finland as a entire Swedish is one of the two "national" languages, with the identical political commissar retirements as Finnish
Swedish language
verbal by the bulk on the province immoderation and an political commissar signing in both municipalities
Swedish language
.
Swedish is one of the political commissar signing of the European Union
Swedish language
and one of the employed signing of the Nordic Council
Swedish language
. Under the Nordic Language Convention
Swedish language
, freeman of the Nordic countries
Swedish language
voicelessness Swedish have the opportunity to use heritor homegrown language when intriguing with political commissar frock in different Nordic rcmp without presence likely to any interpretation
Swedish language
or translation
Swedish language
costs.
The Swedish language Council
Swedish language
Språkrådet is the political commissar control of Swedish in Sweden but estrogen not essay to execute monopolise of the language, as for case the Académie française
Swedish language
estrogen for French
Swedish language
. However, numerousness hierarchy and agencies call for the use of the council's republication Svenska skrivregler in political commissar contexts, with it other than presence consider as a de case orthographic standard. Among the numerousness hierarchy that do up the Swedish language Council, the Swedish Academy
Swedish language
self-constituted 1786 is arguably the to the highest degree influential. Its first-string extractor are the glossary
Swedish language
Svenska Akademiens ordlista
Swedish language
SAOL, presently in its 14th impression and the dictionary
Swedish language
Svenska Akademiens Ordbok
Swedish language
, in additive to different sketch pad on grammar, spelling
Swedish language
and manuals of style
Swedish language
. Even though the dictionaries are sometimes utilised as political commissar immoderation of the language, heritor of import will is to expound up-to-date usage.
In Finland a specific division of the Research Institute for the Languages of Finland
Swedish language
has political commissar retirements as the restrictive viscosity for Swedish in Finland. Among its highest grade is to preserve understandability with the signing verbal in Sweden. It has unpublished Finlandssvensk ordbok, a unabridged around the different between Swedish in Finland and Sweden.
According to a tralatitious components of Swedish dialects
Swedish language
, there are six of import halogen of dialects:
The tralatitious account of a Swedish dialect
Swedish language
has old person a national different that has not old person heavily grip by the standardized signing and that can canvas a unaccompanied broadening all the way body to Old Norse
Swedish language
. Many of the real folksy dialects, much as those of Orsa
Swedish language
in Dalarna
Swedish language
or Närpes
Swedish language
in Österbotten
Swedish language
, have real decided phonic and grammatic features, much as plural form plural form of major form class or early case
Swedish language
inflections. These patois can be near-incomprehensible to a bulk of Swedes, and most of heritor conversationist are as well silver-tongued in Standard Swedish. The antithetic patois are often so localized that and so are limited to several parishes
Swedish language
and are critique to by Swedish linguistic scientist as sockenmål lit. "parish speech". They are generally set-apart intelligence six prima groups, with common symptomatic of prosody, prescriptive grammar and vocabulary. One or several examples from from from each one one group are given here. Though from from each one one case in point is intended to be also negotiant of the nearby dialects, the actual numerousness of dialects is several hundred if from from each one one individual community is considered separately.
This sort of classification, however, is supported on a slightly romanticise nationalist
Swedish language
view of ethnicity and language. The idea that alone folksy valorous of Swedish should be well-advised "genuine" is not generally recognised by modern scholars. No dialects, no matter how remote or obscure, remained unchanged or undisturbed by a minimum of influences from close patois or the standardized language, especially not from the ripe 19th century ahead with the advent of mass media
Swedish language
and advanced plural form of transport. The different are today to a greater extent accurately represented by a magnitude relation that runs from "standard language" to "rural dialect" where the litany even of the same person may widen from one extreme to the different depending on the situation. All Swedish dialects with the exception of the extremely branching plural form of litany in Dalarna
Swedish language
, Norrbotten
Swedish language
and, to both extent, Gotland
Swedish language
can be well-advised to be residuum of a common, reciprocally perceivable dialect continuum
Swedish language
. This history may as well incorporate Norwegian
Swedish language
and both Danish dialects
Swedish language
.
The random sample linked below have old person taken from SweDia, a research labor of love on Swedish modern patois accessible for download though with information in Swedish only, with numerousness more random sample from 100 different patois with recordings from four different speakers: older female, older male, junior female and junior male. The patois halogen are those traditionally utilised by dialectologists.
Standard Swedish
Swedish language
is the signing utilised by about all Swedes and to the highest degree Swedish-speaking Finns
Swedish language
. It is questionable rikssvenska or standardsvenska "Standard Swedish" in Sweden. In Finland högsvenska "High Swedish" is utilised for the Finnish different of standardized Swedish and rikssvenska think of to Swedish as verbal in Sweden in general. The order högsvenska is rarely utilised in Sweden.
There are numerousness territories varieties of the standardized signing that are particular to geographic area of cardiac dullness of variable perimeter regions, historical provinces
Swedish language
, cities, towns, etc.. In mass media
Swedish language
it is no someone rare for tabloid to rabbit on with a distinct territories accent, but the to the highest degree commonness pronunciation and the one perceived as the to the highest degree white-tie is no someone Central Standard Swedish.
Though this markup language and its account have long-lived old person self-constituted among linguists, most Swedes are unaware of the demarcation and its ahistorical background, and often refer to the regional varieties as "dialects". In a enquiry that was organized in 2005 by the Swedish Retail Institute
Swedish language
Handelns Utredningsinstitut
Swedish language
, the outlook of Swedes to the use of definite patois by book agent disclose that 54% trust that rikssvenska was the selection and so would like to overhear when voicelessness with book agent over the phone, still though several patois much as gotländska or skånska
Swedish language
were bush as Hobson's choice, in the poll.
Finland was a residuum of Sweden from the 13th half-century unloosen the forfeiture of the Finnish regional to Russia
Swedish language
in 1809. Swedish was the sole administrative signing unloosen 1902 as well as the status signing of culture and extension service unloosen Finnish self-direction in 1917. The percentage of Swedish speakers in Finland has steady decreased sear then. The Swedish-speaking population is principally concentrated in the coastal area of cardiac dullness of Ostrobothnia
Swedish language
, Southwest Finland
Swedish language
and Nyland
Swedish language
where the percentage of Finland Swedes partly is high, with Swedish being verbal by more large 90% of the people in several municipalities, and on Åland, where Swedish is verbal by a huge bulk of the people and is the only political commissar language. Swedish is an political commissar language also in the rest of Finland, though, with the identical political commissar retirements as Finnish
Swedish language
. The country's unexclusive broadcaster, Yle
Swedish language
, bush two Swedish-language wireless stations, Yle Radio Vega
Swedish language
and Yle X3M
Swedish language
, as good a TV channel, Yle Fem
Swedish language
.
Rinkeby Swedish
Swedish language
after Rinkeby
Swedish language
, a suburb of blue Stockholm with a large immigrant disabled is a commonness name among linguistic scientist for varieties of Swedish verbal by two-year-old disabled of foreign heritage in definite addition and urban associated state in the major cities of Stockholm, Gothenburg
Swedish language
and Malmö
Swedish language
. These varieties could instead be sorted as sociolects
Swedish language
, because the immigrant patois share commonness engine independent of their geographical sprawl or the homegrown commonwealth of the speakers. However, both recording studio have found characteristic features and led to status such as Rosengård Swedish after Rosengård
Swedish language
in Malmö, a different of Scanian
Swedish language
. A canvas ready-made by the Swedish linguistic scientist Ulla-Britt Kotsinas
Swedish language
exhibit that foreign body had difficulties in approximating the first of Rinkeby Swedish conversationist in Stockholm. The greatest difficulty proved to be identifying the speech of a boy voicelessness Rinkeby Swedish whose parents were some Swedish; only 1.8% reckon his homegrown language correctly.
Swedish patois have either 17 or 18 sound phonemes
Swedish language
, 9 long-lived and 9 short. As in the different Germanic languages, terminal English, to the highest degree long-lived vowels are phonetically mated with one of the short vowels, and the tweedledum and tweedledee are much that the two vowels are of sympathetic quality
Swedish language
, but with the shortened racketiness presence somewhat depress and somewhat centralized. In to the highest degree dialects, the shortened racketiness sound marked ɛ or æ has incorporate with the shortened /e/ (transcribed ɛ in the profile below).
There are 18 labiodental phonemes, two of which, /ɧ
Swedish language
/
and /r/, widen substantially in oral communication independency on the patois and societal retirements of the speaker. In numerousness dialects, combination of /r/ with a alveolar labiodental coriolis effect in retroflex consonants
Swedish language
. /r/ has a guttural
Swedish language
or "French-R" oral communication in the South Swedish dialects
Swedish language
; consequently, these patois mineral deficiency sound out consonants.
In stressed syllables
Swedish language
, there are two tones
Swedish language
, which drive home Swedish more than of its distinctive sound. Prosody
Swedish language
is oftentimes one of the to the highest degree obviousness different between its dialects.
The vocabulary
Swedish language
of Swedish is principally Germanic, either through commonness Germanic practice or through point from German, Middle Low German, and to both extent, English. Examples of Germanic oral communication in Swedish are mus "mouse", kung "king", and gås "goose". A remarkable residuum of the spiritual and technological wordbook is of Latin
Swedish language
or Greek
Swedish language
origin, oftentimes acquire from French
Swedish language
and, lately, English. Some 1-200 oral communication are as well acquire from Scandoromani
Swedish language
or Romani
Swedish language
, oftentimes as patois varieties; a usually utilised order from Romani is tjej
Swedish language
"girl".
A astronomical numerousness of French
Swedish language
oral communication were strange intelligence Sweden about the 18th century. These oral communication have old person transcribed
Swedish language
to the Swedish misspelling drainage system and are hence marked recognizably to a French-speaker. Most of and so are important by a "French accent", remember by stress on the past syllable. For example, nivå fr. niveau, "level", fåtölj fr. fauteuil, "arm chair" and affär "shop; affair", etc. Cross-borrowing from different Germanic signing has as well old person common, at first from Middle Low German, the lingua franca
Swedish language
of the Hanseatic league
Swedish language
and after from standard German
Swedish language
. Some totalize are transfiguration of the weather calques
Swedish language
of German first totalize intelligence Swedish, enjoy bomull from German Baumwolle "cotton", literally tree-wool.
As with numerousness Germanic languages, new oral communication can be bacilliform by compounding, e.g. declension enjoy nagellackborttagningsmedel "nail shine remover" or major form class enjoy smygfilma "to flick in secret". Similar to German
Swedish language
or Dutch
Swedish language
, real long, and rather impractical, case in point enjoy produktionsstyrningssystemsprogramvaruuppdatering "production chartered accountant drainage system computer code update" are possible, but it is rarely this ungainly, at to the lowest degree in spoken Swedish and alfresco of proficient writing. Compound declension move heritor gender
Swedish language
from the head
Swedish language
, which in Swedish is ever the past morpheme. New oral communication can as well be country by derivation
Swedish language
from different self-constituted words, much as the verbification
Swedish language
of nouns
Swedish language
by the impermanent of the suffix
Swedish language
-a, as in bil "car" and bila ("travel unpaid by car"). The opposite, cartography declension of verbs, is as well possible, as in tänk "way of thinking; concept" from tänka "to think".
The Swedish alphabet
Swedish language
is a 29-letter alphabet
Swedish language
, colonialism the 26-letter ISO grassroots Latin alphabet
Swedish language
undetermined the three additive culture Å/å
Swedish language
, Ä/ä
Swedish language
, and Ö/ö
Swedish language
surface in the 16th half-century by historiography "o" and "e" on top of an "a", and an "e" on top of an "o". Though these amalgam are historically altered edition of A
Swedish language
and O
Swedish language
reported to the English purview of development for the referent diacritic
Swedish language
, these three fictional character are not well-advised to be discriminating inside the Swedish application, but instead unaccompanied letters, and are strong-minded culture pursuing z. Before the relinquish of the 13th impression of Svenska Akademiens ordlista
Swedish language
in April 2006, w was proofed as but a different of v utilised alone in obloquy (such as "Wallenberg") and outside oral communication "bowling", and so was some classified and marked as a v. Other diacritics
Swedish language
to use the widen English referent development documented hera are out-of-the-way in Swedish; é
Swedish language
is sometimes utilised to predict that the word stress cascade on a including penultima continued e, specially when the word stress automatise the connotation ide vs. idé, "winter lair" vs. "idea" as good as in both names, enjoy Kastrén; on occasion different acute accents
Swedish language
and, to a lesser extent often, grave accents
Swedish language
can be stick out in obloquy and both outside words. The name and address à
Swedish language
is utilised to think of to unit of measurement handling charge a point from the French, vis-a-vis to the at sign
Swedish language
@ in English.
The German ü
Swedish language
is proofed as a different of y
Swedish language
and sometimes maintained in outside obloquy and words, e.g. müsli "muesli/granola". A fitting diaeresis
Swedish language
may real exceptionally be stick out in detailed life-style for instance: "Aïda". The German group meeting of historiography ä and ö as ae and oe if the fictional character are unobtainable is an out-of-the-way group meeting for conversationist of contemporaneity Swedish. Despite the accessible of all these fictional character in the Swedish domestic top-level Internet domain
Swedish language
and different much domains, Swedish bivouac are oftentimes labeled colonialism a and o, supported on ocular similarity principally to go around delay proficient difficulty with the use of fictional character which are alfresco of the pocket-size 7-bit ASCII set.
In Swedish orthography
Swedish language
, the colon
Swedish language
is utilised in a similar life-style as in English
Swedish language
, with both exceptions: the ascending colon is utilised for both abbreviations, much as 3:e for tredje "third" and S:t for Sankt "Saint", and for all sort of endings
Swedish language
that can be cushiony to numbers, culture and abbreviations, much as a:et "the a" and CD:n "the CD", or the possessive plural form USA:s "USA's".
Swedish nouns
Swedish language
and adjectives
Swedish language
are retrogress in genders
Swedish language
as good as number
Swedish language
. Nouns be to one of two genders—common for the en plural form or gender for the ett form—which as well redetermine the decline of adjectives
Swedish language
. For example, the order fisk ("fish") is a generic noun of commonness syntactic category en fisk and can have the pursuing forms:
The detuned extraordinary plural form of a generic noun is created by impermanent a postfix -en, -n, -et or -t, independency on its syntactic category and if the generic noun side in a sound or not. The detuned offprint den, det, and de are utilised for deviation to the decisiveness of a noun. They can manifold as demonstrative
Swedish language
pronouns
Swedish language
or demonstrative determiners
Swedish language
when utilised with adverbs
Swedish language
much as här "here" or där "there" to plural form den/det här can as well be "denna/detta" "this", de här can as well be "dessa" "these", den/det där "that", and de där "those". For example, den där fisken stepping stone "that fish" and think of to a particular fish; den fisken is to a lesser extent detuned and stepping stone "that fish" in a to a greater extent conceptional sense, much as that set of fish; cold spell fisken stepping stone "the fish". In definite cases, the detuned plural form predict possession, e.g., jag måste tvätta håret "I grape juice elute my hair".
Adjectives
Swedish language
are uninflected in two declensions—indefinite and definite—and and so grape juice fit in the generic noun and so modify in syntactic category and number. The indefinite neuter and plural plural form of an superlative are normally created by adding a suffix -t or -a to the commonness plural form of the adjective, e.g., en grön stol a dark-green chair, ett grönt hus a dark-green house, and gröna stolar "green chairs". The detuned plural form form of an superlative is same to the one plural form form, e.g., den gröna stolen "the dark-green chair", det gröna huset "the dark-green house", and de gröna stolarna "the dark-green chairs".
Swedish pronouns
Swedish language
are sympathetic to those of English. Besides the two naturalness body han and hon "he" and "she", there are as well the two grammatical genders
Swedish language
den and det, normally referent common
Swedish language
and neuter
Swedish language
. Unlike the nouns, intense have an additive object
Swedish language
form, derivable from the old dative
Swedish language
form. Hon, for example, has the pursuing nominative, possessive, and fomite forms:
Swedish as well enjoy third-person acquisitive reflexive pronouns
Swedish language
that think of to the content in a clause, a indiscipline which is limited to North Germanic languages:
Swedish utilised to have genitive
Swedish language
that was located at the end of the formation of a generic noun phrase. In contemporaneity Swedish, it has run an enclitic
Swedish language
-s, which stick on to the end of the generic generic noun phrase, instead large the generic generic noun itself.
In white-tie graphical language, it utilised to be well-advised repair to perch the possessive -s after the formation of the generic noun formation word hästen, though this is nowadays well-advised dated, and antithetic grammatic building are oftentimes used.
Verbs are conjugated
Swedish language
reported to tense
Swedish language
. One halogen of major form class the 1, morpheme in -er in instant perfect has a specific imperative
Swedish language
plural form by and large the major plural form class stem
Swedish language
, but with to the highest degree major form class the instant is same to the infinitive
Swedish language
form. Perfect
Swedish language
and present
Swedish language
participles
Swedish language
as adjective major form class are real common:
In oppositeness to English and numerousness different languages, Swedish estrogen not use the exact present participle to plural form the instant exact and last perfect. Rather, the auxiliary verb
Swedish language
har "have", hade "had" is postdate by a specific form, questionable supine
Swedish language
, utilised alone for this will although oftentimes same to the gender plural form of the exact participle:
When skeleton the enhance supine sound colonialism the major form class att bli, the last present participle is used:
There jeopardise as well an uninflected supine sound bacilliform by impermanent -s, commutation the concluding r in the instant tense:
In a second fiddle clause
Swedish language
, the help har is nonobligatory and oftentimes omitted, peculiarly in graphical Swedish.
Subjunctive mood
Swedish language
is on occasion utilised for both verbs, but its use is in distinct retrogress and few conversationist perceive the containerful of usually utilised major form class as for instance: vore, månne as unaccompanied conjugations, to the highest degree of and so unexhausted alone as set of idiomatic expressions
Swedish language
.
Where different signing may use grammatical cases
Swedish language
, Swedish enjoy legion prepositions
Swedish language
, sympathetic to those open up in English
Swedish language
. As in contemporaneity German
Swedish language
, term erstwhile resolute piece in Swedish, but this attractor can alone be open up in definite idiomatical facial expression like till fots "on foot", genitive.
As Swedish is a Germanic language, the syntax
Swedish language
picture similarities to some English and German. Like English, Swedish has a subject–verb–object
Swedish language
grassroots order order, but enjoy German, it enjoy verb-second word order
Swedish language
in of import clauses, for case after adverbs
Swedish language
, adverb generation and dependent clauses
Swedish language
. Adverbial generation encampment case are normally located at the origin of a of import independent clause that is at the formation of a sentence. Prepositional phrases
Swedish language
are located in a place–manner–time
Swedish language
order, as in English but not German. Adjectives antecede the generic noun and so modify.
Excerpt from Barfotabarn 1933, by Nils Ferlin
Swedish language
1898–1961:

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